Kasparov vs IBM Deep Blue

In May 1997, IBM's Deep Blue Supercomputer played a fascinating match with the reigning World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov. For the first time a computer program beaten a world champion chess player.

Final Result (after 6 matches): Deep Blue 2 - Kasparov 1 (3 draws)

Game 1: May, 3 1997 - Kasparov wins.

Garry Kasparov showed us what 'Anti Computer Chess' was today and played cat and mouse with Deep Blue, accumulating small advantages without risking anything. Deep Blue seemed a little bemused at first and played a few innacurate and weakening moves but it came right back into the game with a retreat that no one had foreseen.

Kasparov kept his nerve, and the advantage, but consumed valuable thinking time and could be seen chiding himself at one point when he appeared to have missed the best move.

With the tension rising, Deep Blue was provoked into an unsound attack that weakened its position still further -- but such was the ferocity of its assault that it took all of Kasparov's tactical skill to rebuff the computer.

Although nominally ahead on material, Deep Blue was strategically lost after the queens were exchanged and the world champion methodically wrapped up the endgame.

Deep Blue has white tomorrow, and Kasparov will find it much harder to control the play.

White: Kasparov
Black: Deep Blue

  1. Nf3 d5
  2. g3 Bg4
  3. b3 Nd7
  4. Bb2 e6
  5. Bg2 Ngf6
  6. 0-0 c6
  7. d3 Bd6
  8. Nbd2 0-0
  9. h3 Bh5
  10. e3 h6
  11. Qe1 Qa5
  12. a3 Bc7
  13. Nh4 g5
  14. Nhf3 e5
  15. e4 Rfe8
  16. Nh2 Qb6
  17. Qc1 a5
  18. Re1 Bd6
  19. Ndf1 dxe4
  20. dxe4 Bc5
  21. Ne3 Rad8
  22. Nhf1 g4
  23. hxg4 Nxg4
  24. f3 Nxe3
  25. Nxe3 Be7
  26. Kh1 Bg5
  27. Re2 a4
  28. b4 f5
  29. exf5 e4
  30. f4 Bxe2
  31. fxg5 Ne5
  32. g6 Bf3
  33. Bc3 Qb5
  34. Qf1 Qxf1+
  35. Rxf1 h5
  36. Kg1 Kf8
  37. Bh3 b5
  38. Kf2 Kg7
  39. g4 Kh6
  40. Rg1 hxg4
  41. Bxg4 Bxg4
  42. Nxg4+ Nxg4
  43. Rxg4 Rd5
  44. f6 Rd1
  45. g7 1-0

Game 2: May 4, 1997 - Deep Blue wins.

So this proves it, last year's win for Deep Blue was no fluke. The computer stunned the audience and particularly the watching Grandmasters by playing a seamless strategic game in a type of blocked position that conventional wisdom has always held, favors the human player.

Maybe its time to rewrite the textbooks, the match is alive again at 1-1. Kasparov was stunned by his defeat and left the playing area at great speed without comment. The Deep Blue team received a standing ovation and their chess expert Joel Benjamin summed it up: " This was real chess."

Kasparov has the advantage of the white pieces in Tuesday's third game, and will welcome the rest day to collect his thoughts. Deep Blue has to find an improvement over its play in game 1 but whatever the outcome, its clearly worthy of its nickname Deeper Blue.

White: Deep Blue
Black: Kasparov

  1. e4 e5
  2. Nf3 Nc6
  3. Bb5 a6
  4. Ba4 Nf6
  5. 0-0 Be7
  6. Re1 b5
  7. Bb3 d6
  8. c3 0-0
  9. h3 h6
  10. d4 Re8
  11. Nbd2 Bf8
  12. Nf1 Bd7
  13. Ng3 Na5
  14. Bc2 c5
  15. b3 Nc6
  16. d5 Ne7
  17. Be3 Ng6
  18. Qd2 Nh7
  19. a4 Nh4
  20. Nxh4 Qxh4
  21. Qe2 Qd8
  22. b4 Qc7
  23. Rec1 c4
  24. Ra3 Rec8
  25. Rca1 Qd8
  26. f4 Nf6
  27. fxe5 dxe5
  28. Qf1 Ne8
  29. Qf2 Nd6
  30. Bb6 Qe8
  31. R3a2 Be7
  32. Bc5 Bf8
  33. Nf5 Bxf5
  34. exf5 f6
  35. Bxd6 Bxd6
  36. axb5 axb5
  37. Be4 Rxa2
  38. Qxa2 Qd7
  39. Qa7 Rc7
  40. Qb6 Rb7
  41. Ra8+ Kf7
  42. Qa6 Qc7
  43. Qc6 Qb6+
  44. Kf1 Rb8
  45. Ra6 1-0

Game 3: May 6, 1997 - Draw.

The champion finds it difficult to pinpoint the real Deep Blue. The first draw of the match leaves it tied at the halfway stage. Garry Kasparov was visibly frustrated by his lack of success, an emotion that surfaced at the press conference in what diplomats might call a "frank exchange of views" with Deep Blue chess consultant Joel Benjamin.

After Deep Blue's sublime performance in Game 2 it was back to normal computer-vs.-human chess. Deep Blue played rather as it did in Game 1 and mixed some bad positional moves that betrayed a lack of appreciation of strategy with some superb tactical ideas.

It must be so hard to face an opponent that you cannot see who plays so unevenly and, of course, in certain positions, perfectly.

The world champion produced a real surprise as early as move one and we were treated to an opening move obviously prepared for the computer, something that Kasparov would never play against a human.

The idea was to avoid tactics at which Deep Blue excels and make strategic factors paramount. It seemed to work as Deep Blue got its pieces in a muddle. But to compensate for that, the machine did what all machines like to do during a game of chess: It grabbed a pawn and refused to give it back.

Kasparov does not hide his feelings during the game, and we were treated to the full range of facial expressions: a smile when Deep Blue weakened its position and then a huge grimace when the consequences of one of Deep Blue's neat ideas dawned.

Kasparov's position became better and better. Deep Blue "did everything to lose the game but not enough," Kasparov said after the match. With imminent defeat predicted in the press room and on the Internet, Deep Blue played a marvelous, if inconspicuous looking, bishop move that visibly shocked Kasparov and convinced him to part with his most powerful piece, a knight lodged on a great central square.

With the position blocked, Deep Blue was content to mark time with its king as Kasparov strained to find a winning plan. But after just six more moves he gave up and offered a draw.

-- IM Malcolm Pein, London Chess Centre

White: Kasparov
Black: Deep Blue

  1. d3 e5
  2. Nf3 Nc6
  3. c4 Nf6
  4. a3 d6
  5. Nc3 Be7
  6. g3 O-O
  7. Bg2 Be6
  8. O-O Qd7
  9. Ng5 Bf5
  10. e4 Bg4
  11. f3 Bh5
  12. Nh3 Nd4
  13. Nf2 h6
  14. Be3 c5
  15. b4 b6
  16. Rb1 Kh8
  17. Rb2 a6
  18. bxc5 bxc5
  19. Bh3 Qc7
  20. Bg4 Bg6
  21. f4 exf4
  22. gxf4 Qa5
  23. Bd2 Qxa3
  24. Ra2 Qb3
  25. f5 Qxd1
  26. Bxd1 Bh7
  27. Nh3 Rfb8
  28. Nf4 Bd8
  29. Nfd5 Nc6
  30. Bf4 Ne5
  31. Ba4 Nxd5
  32. Nxd5 a5
  33. Bb5 Ra7
  34. Kg2 g5
  35. Bxe5+ dxe5
  36. f6 Bg6
  37. h4 gxh4
  38. Kh3 Kg8
  39. Kxh4 Kh7
  40. Kg4 Bc7
  41. Nxc7 Rxc7
  42. Rxa5 Rd8
  43. Rf3 Kh8
  44. Kh4 Kg8
  45. Ra3 Kh8
  46. Ra6 Kh7
  47. Ra3 Kh8
  48. Ra6 Draw!

Game 4: May 7, 1997 - Draw.

Garry Kasparov still cannot come to grips entirely with Deep Blue. The fourth game saw the world champion overcome early difficulties to reach a winning endgame, only to let it slip at the critical moment.

The second draw of the match leaves it tied at 2-2 with two to play. Deep Blue's speed of response gives it an extra edge because it leaves Kasparov less time to reflect. Both sides have to make their first 40 moves in two hours thinking time. When Kasparov goes in for a long think at an early stage, as he did today, he finds he has to make his last few moves in a hurry as he strives to reach the first "time control" on the 40th move.

Consequently, errors creep into his play. The champion feels he missed a win in the time trouble phase. Deep Blue, naturally, just keeps churning out the moves and keeping the pressure on. Kasparov is tiring.

When questioned by commentator Maurice Ashley about a winning possibility near the end of the game, Kasparov replied: "I was tired and I could not figure it out."

Murray Campbell said of the machine: "It knew it was a little behind but it never saw a clear win (for Kasparov)."

Kasparov has obviously developed a healthy respect for Deep Blue, admitting that he "did not have any great aspirations with black," which implies he would have been satisfied with a draw when he sat down at 3 p.m. By 4p.m., when he stood badly, a draw seemed a long way off, but a pawn sacrifice from Kasparov changed the character of the position and Deep Blue did not react well.

At one point, Deep Blue had five "isolated pawns," a chess term for pawns that are not adjacent other pawns which can be used for protection. Kasparov looked really confident, and Deep Blue might have been worried because one of its handlers, Feng-hsiung Hsu started typing commands into it. This visibly amused the champion. Later it was explained that Feng was restarting the computer.

Kasparov was a pawn in arrears, but his two remaining pawns were united, and could support each other's advance. However, just as the Grandmasters were preparing to bury Deep Blue, it came up with a fantastic defense, and Kasparov's pawns were going nowhere. One of Deep Blue's pawns hovered over the queening square, and when another started to roll, Kasparov had seen enough and offered a draw.

--IM Malcolm Pein, London Chess Centre

White: Deep Blue
Black: Kasparov

  1. e4 c6
  2. d4 d6
  3. Nf3 Nf6
  4. Nc3 Bg4
  5. h3 Bh5
  6. Bd3 e6
  7. Qe2 d5
  8. Bg5 Be7
  9. e5 Nfd7
  10. Bxe7 Qxe7
  11. g4 Bg6
  12. Bxg6 hxg6
  13. h4 Na6
  14. O-O-O O-O-O
  15. Rdg1 Nc7
  16. Kb1 f6
  17. exf6 Qxf6
  18. Rg3 Rde8
  19. Re1 Rhf8
  20. Nd1 e5
  21. dxe5 Qf4
  22. a3 Ne6
  23. Nc3 Ndc5
  24. b4 Nd7
  25. Qd3 Qf7
  26. b5 Ndc5
  27. Qe3 Qf4
  28. bxc6 bxc6
  29. Rd1 Kc7
  30. Ka1 Qxe3
  31. fxe3 Rf7
  32. Rh3 Ref8
  33. Nd4 Rf2
  34. Rb1 Rg2
  35. Nce2 Rxg4
  36. Nxe6+ Nxe6
  37. Nd4 Nxd4
  38. exd4 Rxd4
  39. Rg1 Rc4
  40. Rxg6 Rxc2
  41. Rxg7+ Kb6
  42. Rb3+ Kc5
  43. Rxa7 Rf1+
  44. Rb1 Rff2
  45. Rb4 Rc1+
  46. Rb1 Rcc2
  47. Rb4 Rc1+
  48. Rb1 Rxb1+
  49. Kxb1 Re2
  50. Re7 Rh2
  51. Rh7 Kc4
  52. Rc7 c5
  53. e6 Rxh4
  54. e7 Re4
  55. a4 Kb3
  56. Kc1 Draw!

Game 5: May 10, 1997 - Draw.

Another marvelous saving resource in the endgame from Deep Blue has tied the match at 2.5-2.5, with one to play, and increased the tension to an almost unbearable degree.

Garry Kasparov, who sees himself as the "last man standing" in a mission to save chess from being turned into a mathematical formula, now faces having to win with black in Game 6 to take the match, an awesome task.

The champion's demeanor has changed palpably as the match has progressed, and he still seems to be in shock from the trauma of being outplayed in Game 2 and then resigning a drawn position.

Today, playing white, he continued his ultra-cautious strategy in the opening, and it seemed to bear fruit in the form of two powerful looking bishops. Deep Blue was unconcerned and played such a startling 11th move that the champion stared at Murray Campbell as if to say, "Is that right ? "

Said Kasparov after the game: "Sometimes the computer plays very human moves. "

Kasparov was soon under pressure on the board, and again on the clock, but he was given some relief when Deep Blue exchanged queens, a tactic that simplifies the game considerably.

The next phase of the game saw Kasparov make a comeback and outplay the machine, isolating its pieces and giving up a pawn to win it back advantageously soon after.

Finally came another vintage endgame in which the combined human intuition of all the top players present could not outweigh the raw calculating power of Deep Blue.

Kasparov had a pawn that seemed destined to be promoted to a new queen, the nearest thing in chess to a touchdown. Deep Blue, meanwhile, seemed oblivious to the danger and was feasting on Kasparov's queenside pawns. What was it doing? We all wanted to know. The answer came as Deep Blue's king moved up the board creating such huge threats that, in the end, Kasparov had to offer a draw on the 49th move.

So no winner for the third successive game, only for the game of chess. The champ summed it up: "When two sides play well the game is a draw. "

-- IM Malcolm Pein, London Chess Centre

White: Kasparov
Black: Deep Blue

  1. Nf3 d5
  2. g3 Bg4
  3. Bg2 Nd7
  4. h3 Bxf3
  5. Bxf3 c6
  6. d3 e6
  7. e4 Ne5
  8. Bg2 dxe4
  9. Bxe4 Nf6
  10. Bg2 Bb4+
  11. Nd2 h5
  12. Qe2 Qc7
  13. c3 Be7
  14. d4 Ng6
  15. h4 e5
  16. Nf3 exd4
  17. Nxd4 O-O-O
  18. Bg5 Ng4
  19. O-O-O Rhe8
  20. Qc2 Kb8
  21. Kb1 Bxg5
  22. hxg5 N6e5
  23. Rhe1 c5
  24. Nf3 Rxd1+
  25. Rxd1 Nc4
  26. Qa4 Rd8
  27. Re1 Nb6
  28. Qc2 Qd6
  29. c4 Qg6
  30. Qxg6 fxg6
  31. b3 Nxf2
  32. Re6 Kc7
  33. Rxg6 Rd7
  34. Nh4 Nc8
  35. Bd5 Nd6
  36. Re6 Nb5
  37. cxb5 Rxd5
  38. Rg6 Rd7
  39. Nf5 Ne4
  40. Nxg7 Rd1+
  41. Kc2 Rd2+
  42. Kc1 Rxa2
  43. Nxh5 Nd2
  44. Nf4 Nxb3+
  45. Kb1 Rd2
  46. Re6 c4
  47. Re3 Kb6
  48. g6 Kxb5
  49. g7 Kb4
  50. Draw!

Game 6: May 11, 1997 - Deep Blue wins.

By his own admission, the pressure got to Garry Kasparov today. It was the not the $300,000 difference between first and second prize nor the massive media attention this match has received. It was Deep Blue's astonishing play the world champion could not come to terms with.

Kasparov was off-balance coming into this game, a man who, for once in his career, had let his emotions overcome the logical impulses of his own chess genius. Still smarting from his reverse in the second game, Kasparov had lost his objectivity and accepted his strategy has failed.

In a bizarre twist, Kasparov avoided his favorite opening moves and started to play like his longtime human rival, Anatoly Karpov, who loves to defend with an opening known as the Caro-Kann. This was a clear sign things were not right, but Deep Blue, naturally, did not notice and just played the standard moves. As early as move seven, Kasparov made a clear mistake allowing a sacrifice of a knight that is known to be very strong. A quick check of the computer chess databases showed that of the nine players who had allowed this sacrifice, only one had survived and he needed a large slice of luck.

With Deep Blue, luck does not come into it, and we witnessed the shortest ever game between man and machine at the top level. After just under an hour, Kasparov realized how hopeless his position had become. We did not have to wait long for the killer blow from Deep Blue that ended the game after just 19 moves and win the match 3.5-2.5. The champion issued a challenge at the post game press conference: " It's time for Deep Blue to play real chess. I personally guarantee I will tear it in pieces." Fighting talk, and I fervently hope we will see Deep Blue participate in wider world of chess.

What has changed in the machine that lost last year ? The director of the IBM research team, C.J.Tan, explained: " Three things were improved this time around; it's more powerful, we added more chess knowledge and we developed a program to change the parameters in between each game."

Kasparov is still in shock, and was in his hotel room last night studying printouts from the Deep Blue team that he hopes will give him some insights into its wonderful play that have entertained and will, in time, educate every chess player.

-- IM Malcolm Pein, London Chess Centre

White: Deep Blue
Black: Kasparov

  1. e4 c6
  2. d4 d5
  3. Nc3 dxe4
  4. Nxe4 Nd7
  5. Ng5 Ngf6
  6. Bd3 e6
  7. N1f3 h6
  8. Nxe6 Qe7
  9. O-O fxe6
  10. Bg6+ Kd8
  11. Bf4 b5
  12. a4 Bb7
  13. Re1 Nd5
  14. Bg3 Kc8
  15. axb5 cxb5
  16. Qd3 Bc6
  17. Bf5 exf5
  18. Rxe7 Bxe7
  19. c4 Resign

source: www.research.ibm.com/deepblue/